Academia Industry DynAmics
Knowledge Graph
About
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About

Academia and industry share a complex, multifaceted, and symbiotic relationship. Analysing the knowledge flow between them, understanding which directions have the biggest potential, and discovering the best strategies to harmonise their efforts is a critical task for several stakeholders. While research publications and patents are an ideal media to analyse this space, current datasets of scholarly data can not be used for such a purpose since they lack a high-quality characterization of the relevant research topics and industrial sectors.
We introduce the Academia/Industry DynAmics (AIDA) Knowledge Graph, which describes 21M publications and 8M patents according to the research topics drawn from the Computer Science Ontology. 5.1M publications and 5.6M patents are further characterized according to the type of the author's affiliations (academy, industry, or collaborative) and 66 industrial sectors (e.g., automotive, financial, energy, electronics) organized in a two-level taxonomy.
AIDA was generated by an automatic pipeline that integrates data from Microsoft Academic Graph, Dimensions, DBpedia, the Computer Science Ontology, and the Global Research Identifier Database. It is publicly available under CC BY 4.0 and can be downloaded as a dump or queried via a triplestore.

Permanent URL

http://w3id.org/aida

Resources

SPARQL Endpoint

The endpoint where it is possible to query AIDA via SPARQL.

Dashboard

A tool for exploring and making sense of scientific conferences.

Dataset dumps

Download AIDA Datasets.

Evaluation

Evaluation material.

AIDA Data Model

The AIDA data model is based on AIDA Schema and nine additional relationships from Schema.org, RDFS, FOAF and others.

AIDA Schema
AIDA Schema is based on OWL and it includes twelve semantic relations:
  • hasSyntacticTopic, we use this relation to indicate the syntactic topics identified in a paper or a patent;
  • hasSemanticTopic, we use this relation to indicate the semantic topics identified in a paper or a patent;
  • hasTopic, we use this relation to indicate the topics identified in a paper or a patent (including syntactic and semantic);
  • hasAffiliation, we use this relation to indicate the affiliation of a paper;
  • hasAffiliationType, we use this relation to indicate the kind of affiliation of papers and patents: academia, industry, collaborative;
  • hasAssigneeGridType, we use this relation to indicate the type of the assignee of a patent according to the GRID classification: Education, Company, Government, Non-profit and others;
  • hasGridType: we use this relation to indicate the type of an affiliation according to the GRID classification: Education, Company, Government, Non-profit and others;
  • hasPercentageOfAcademia, we use this relation to indicate the percentage of authors who authored this paper or patent, and belong to academia;
  • hasPercentageOfIndustry, we use this relation to indicate the percentage of authors who authored this paper or patent, and belong to industry;
  • hasIndustrialSector, we use this relation to indicate the industrial sector of an affiliation;
  • isInDimensionsWithId, we use this relation to indicate the patent id used in Dimensions database;
  • hasDBpediaCategory, we use this relation to indicate the industrial sector (DBpediaCategory) given by DBpedia in About:Property and About:Industry;

and six classes:
  • paper, the class of papers;
  • patent, the class of patents;
  • author, the class of authors;
  • affiliation, the class of both academic and industrial affiliations;
  • industrialSector, the class of the industrial sectors;
  • DBpediaCategory, this class is populated by all the categories that we inferred from DBpedia. As some of them are literals we created a class.
Additional relationships
In addition to the relationship defined within the AIDA Schema, AIDA KG takes advantage of ten external relationships from various schemas:
  • http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type, we use this relationship to indicate if an entity is of type paper, patent, affiliation, or author;
  • http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label, we use this relationship to indicate the label of an affiliation;
  • http://schema.org/creator, we use this relationship to indicate the author of a paper;
  • http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl/sameAs, we use this relationship to connect papers, authors and affiliation to external knowledge graphs;
  • http://purl.org/dc/terms/title, we use this relationship to indicate the title of paper entities;
  • http://purl.org/spar/datacite/doi, we use this relationship to indicate the DOI of a paper;
  • http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name, we use this relationship to state the name of an author and the affiliation;
  • http://schema.org/memberOf, we use this relationship to indicate the affiliation of an author;
  • http://schema.org/relatedLink, we use this relationship to state the related link of a patent.
  • http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.0/publicationDate, we use this relationship to state the year of publication of papers.
External entities
AIDA KG through the mentioned relationships is connected to a set of external sources:
  • cso:Topic, the topic from CSO;
  • gp:patent, the patent from Google;
  • grid:affiliation, the affiliation entity from GRID;
  • mag:author, the author from Microsoft Academic Graph;
  • mag:paper, the paper from Microsoft Academic Graph;
AIDA KG Schema
Schema of AIDA Knowledge Graph (click to enlarge).

INDUstrial Sector Ontology (INDUSO)

The Industrial Sector Ontology (INDUSO) is a two-level taxonomy describing 66 industrial sectors.
INDUSO was created using a bottom-up method that took into consideration the large collection of publications and patents from MAG and Dimensions. Specifically, for each affiliation described in the documents with a GRID ID, we extracted from DBpedia the objects of the properties About:Purpose and About:Industry. We applied a bottom-up hierarchical clustering approach for merging similar sectors. For instance, the industrial sector "Computing and IT" was derived from categories such as "Networking hardware", "Cloud Computing", and "IT service management".
Finally, we arranged the resulting sectors in a two-level taxonomy to have the first level sector including different second-level sectors. For example, the first level sector "energy" includes "nuclear power", "oil and gas industry", and "air conditioning".

Ontology
INSUDO is based on AIDA Schema, SKOS and PROV and it includes the following semantic relations:
  • http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#broader, we use this relation to indicate when an industrial sector is broader than another;
  • http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom, we use this relation to indicate from which DBpedia categories such industrial sector was derived.

and every entity is an industrial sector from the AIDA Schema http://aida.kmi.open.ac.uk/ontology#industrialSector.

Publications

  • Simone Angioni, Angelo Salatino, Francesco Osborne, Diego Reforgiato Recupero, and Enrico Motta. The AIDA Dashboard: a Web Application for Assessing and Comparing Scientific Conferences. Submitted to the Knowledge-Based Systems Journal.

  • Simone Angioni, Angelo Salatino, Francesco Osborne, Diego Reforgiato Recupero, and Enrico Motta. AIDA: a Knowledge Graph about Research Dynamics in Academia and Industry. Submitted to the Special Issue on 'Scientific Knowledge Graphs and Research Impact Assessment' at the Quantitative Science Studies Journal (QSS).

  • Simone Angioni, Angelo Salatino, Francesco Osborne, Diego Reforgiato Recupero, and Enrico Motta. Integrating Knowledge Graphs for Analysing Academia and Industry Dynamics. Scientific Knowledge Graph Workshop at TPDL 2020.

  • Simone Angioni, Angelo Salatino, Francesco Osborne, Diego Reforgiato Recupero, and Enrico Motta. Integrating Knowledge Graphs for Comparing the Scientific Output of Academia and Industry. In ISWC 2019 Posters & Demonstrations and Industry Tracks @ The Semantic Web – ISWC 2019, 26-30 October 2019, Auckland, New Zeland, CEUR Workshop, 2019.

Team

Simone Angioni

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Cagliari (Italy)

Angelo A. Salatino

Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, Milton Keynes (UK)

Francesco Osborne

Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, Milton Keynes (UK)

Diego Reforgiato Recupero

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Cagliari (Italy)

Enrico Motta

Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, Milton Keynes (UK)

Contact Us

For information and questions please contact:
Francesco Osborne – francesco [dot] osborne [at] open [dot] ac [dot] uk
Angelo Salatino – angelo [dot] salatino [at] open [dot] ac [dot] uk